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From the international Amalgam Mailing list :
Mercury Amalgam: Contamination of Human Nto moderate nerve and brain
disease, with the person exhibiting psycho-behavioral symptoms including
depression, irritablity, memory loss, signs of disturbed kidney
function, minor tremors and other neurological problems. Sub-clinical
illness is transformed into overt clinical illness at a level of about
750 mcg/g. The smallest amount of mercury that will not cause damage is
unknown. [Denton, Sandra, “The Mercury Coverup.” Health Consciousness
Magazine, June 1989.] In fact, the release of mercury from dental
amalgams makes the predominent contribution to human exposure to
inorganic mercury, including mercury vapor, in the general population.
[University of Rochester School of Medicine (Thomas Clarkson, D.D.S.,
John Hursh,M.D.) and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden
(Magnus Nylander, D.D.S. and Lars Friberg, M.D.), the world’s foremost
researchers on mercury toxicity.] Amalgam fillings lose 72% of the
mercury content in 5 years.
Based on the known toxic potentials of mercury and its documented
release from dental amalgams, usage of mercury-containing amalgam
increases the health risk of patients, dentists and assisting dental
personnel. [International Conference of Biocompatibility of Materials,
Colorado Springs, Nov 1988. Tacoma, Washington: Life Sciences Press, Nov
1988.] The overt effect on dental personnel is in evidence by the
general lack of calmness, irritability and tension observed in the
general dentistry population.

Correlation Between Mercury and Multiple Sclerosis

There is some degree of evidence that the presence of mercury in the
brain is a co-factor in the development of multiple sclerosis.
Interestingly, patients having multiple sclerosis are found to have
mercury levels eight times higher than neurologically healthy controls.
It is a matter of scientific fact that inorganic mercury is capable of
producing symptoms that are indistinguishable from those of multiple
sclerosis.[Ahlrot et al., Nutrition Research, 1985 supplement. Second
Nordic Symposium on Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease, Odense,
Denmark, Aug 1987.]

Categories of Mercury-induced Pathology

Physicians, dentists and toxicologists who have treated the increasing
number of people with problems associated with mercury have identified
six general categories of pathology: (1) Allergies. Mercury combines
with allergens to more readily rupture white blood cells than with
allergens alone, (2) Immunological diseases, (3) Collagen diseases
(further accentuated when dental fluorides are administered, (4)
Cardiovascular diseases, (5) Neurological degeneration and (6)
Psychological and behavioral disorders caused by systemic physiological
or neurological damage. It is also interesting that each of the first
five areas uses the element manganese - the action of which is blocked
by mercury.

Physiological Toxicology of Mercury in the Human Body

Mercury atoms have a distinct tendency to combine with organelles within
the neuron, eventually killing it. Because of this tendency, mercury
rates as a primary co-factor in dementia, especially as expressed in
Alzheimer’s syndrome. How do the mercury ions end up in the brain in the
first place? Because amalgam fillings contain mercury, silver, zinc,
tin, copper and nickel, electrolytic action is induced in the mouth,
which frequently maintains an acid pH. Electrical charges induced free
metallic ions which escape both in liquid (saliva + mercury atoms) and
vapor form. Bacteria, both in the mouth and the intestinal tract,
interact with elemental mercury to form methyl mercury compounds, which
are more than 100 times more toxic than the original mercury in the

Mercury vapor which makes its way into the nasal sinuses makes its way
to the brain via axonal transport when mercury ions become part of the
electrical transport mechanism between neurons. Vapor inhaled into the
lungs enters the bloodstream via the capillaries and spreads
systemically throughout the body.

Curiously, when a pregnant human female also has mercury amalgam
fillings, the fetus tends to absorb systemic mercury in a process
ironically designed to protect the mother. Unfortunately in this
situation, the human baby emerges with a red blood cell count 30% higher
than the mother, and as mercury readily combines with hemoglobin the
baby is more highly contaminated with mercury. This presents an
additional cofactor for learning disabilities and minimum brain damage,
to which vaccines (especially DPT) contribute once the baby is born.
Hemoglobin and hemocrit elevation from mercury exposure, combined with
depleted oxygen transport because of the tendency of mercury to displace
oxygen by taking its place in hemoglobin, results in fatigue - chronic
fatigue. It is certain that mercury is a co-factor in chronic
fatigue/immune depression syndrome, as reversal of fatigue related
symptoms and immune depression is known to have been mediated within two
weeks of amalgam removal.

Animal Tests of Systemic Mercury Absorption

In 1989 and 1990, tests were conducted with pregnant sheep in which
radioactive mercury amalgams were inserted. Each sheep had 12 molars
filled. Radioactivity was detected within two days in the jaw bone,
lungs, and intestines. Within 140 days, mercury was detected in the
liver, kidneys, spleen, thyroid and pituitary glands, as well as in
other tissues. Mercury was also detected in lambs born to pregnant
mothers in the tests, and the milk of the mothers contained mercury at
levels eight times higher than in the blood. The sheep were fed twice a
day, allowing the chewing action to release mercury. The amalgams
implanted in the sheep were smaller than those typically implanted into
humans, indicating that human-size implants cause an even greater

This study on sheep was featured in an episode of 60 Minutes on CBS.
Dentists in charge of the American Dental Association (ADA) predictably
reacted to publication of the study and the presentation on 60 Minutes,
as detailed earlier in this chapter. Doctors at the ADA complained that
“sheep chew more than humans” and that unlike humans, the sheep had all
12 fillings installed at once. However, at the 1992 Seattle Conference
of Clinical Toxicologists, a Dr. Lorscheider reported finding similar
data on mercury toxicity in monkeys, which chew the same as humans, and
found evidence that standard methods used by dentists to measure mercury
exposure (blood, urine) do not look for the presence of mercury where it
resides the most - in tissues and organs. Other speakers at the Seattle
Conference supported these findings.

Further Data on the 1991 University of Kentucky
Study correlating Mercury Deposition as an Alzheimer Co-factor

Scientists at the University of Kentucky examined autopsied brains of
ten Alzheimer’s patients, compared with ten age-matched non-diseased
controls, and found increased ratios between mercury and selenium, as
well as increased ratios of mercury and zinc. Selenium and zinc are
utilized by the human brain in a process that serves to protect the
neurons from mercury.The brains of Alzheimer patients had higher levels
of mercury, especially in the cerebral cortex and areas relating to
memory retention. Studies conducted in 1990 and 1991, however, showed
results that were even more interesting relative to trace element
imbalances in Alzheimer patients.

The 1991 Study on Trace Element Deficiencies
in the Alzheimer Syndrome Brain

In a study similar to the University of Kentucky that analyzed autopsied
brains of Alzheimer patients and age-matched disease-free
controls,[Bjorkland, G. “Mercury as a potential source for the etiology
of Alzheimer’s disease.” (1991).] trace element concentrations were
analyzed using a technique called instrumental neutron activation
analysis. The elevation of mercury in the Alzheimer patient was the most
noticable difference, especially in an area of the brain called the
nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a primary area involved with retention
of memory. This research yielded other interesting results which may
indicate additional mechanisms relating to mercury-caused neurological
alteration in the brain.

It was noticed that (1) the interaction of mercury with the essential
trace elements selenium and zinc, which diminish in the presence of
mercury, result in a deficiency of these two essential elements and lead
to cellular dysfunction, (2) cell membranes of neurons become bound up
with mercury, interfering with enzyme activity and causing increased
membrane permeability and leading to an altered ability to regulate the
flow of elemental or molecular ions, morphological changes or cell
death,[Could this be a covert reason why both mercury and aluminum salts
are used as adjuvants in vaccines?] (3) mercury binds to tubulin, a
protein subunit of microtubules in the brain[Tubulin is a protein
substance that is essential for the formation of neurofibril matrix
essential trace elements selenium and zinc, which diminish in the
presence of mercury, result in a deficiency of these two essential
elements and lead to cellular dysfunction, (2) cell membranes of neurons
become bound up with mercury, interfering with enzyme activity and
causing increased membrane permeability and leading to an altered
ability to regulate the flow of elemental or molecular ions,
morphological changes or cell death,[Could this be a covert reason why
both mercury and aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines?] (3)
mercury binds to tubulin, a protein subunit of microtubules in the
brain[Tubulin is a protein substan

All in all, mercury in dental amalgams destroys the existing brain, the
existing memory and prevents new brain cells from being made. The fact
that this research is known and the process is allowed to continue
indicates that it is being done intentionally. By the year 2020 we will
have 60 million people in the United States over the age of 65, 12
million of whom will probably have Alzheimers syndrome from deposition
of mercury and aluminum, according to the latest projections.

The 1990 Brain Research Study on Alzheimer’s and Heavy Metals

A study carried out in 1990 by three psychiatrists[ Wenstrup et al,
“Trace element imbalances in isolated subcellular fractions of
Alzheimer’s disease brains”, Brain Research¸ Vol 553, p125-131, 1990.]
was conducted to determine the trace elements composition and imbalances
in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s. The brains from ten
autopsied Alzheimer’s patients and 12 control patients of the same age
without Alzheimer’s were evaluated. The most significant imbalance of
metals found in the Alzheimer patients was an elevated mercury level and
an elevated level of bromine.

Levels of mercury were especially significant in the cerebral cortex,
especially in an area called the nucleus basalis of Meynert, a primary
center of memory retention. Short term memory loss is initially the most
common complaint. Researchers have also found significant levels of
mercury in the hippocampus and amygdala, which are also structures that
relate to memory.[Note: Recall that the hippocampus is also severly
damaged by fluorides. It seems like we have a large interrelationship
here, don't we? The end result is the DOCILING of the population]

Mechanisms of Neural Alteration from Mercury

Intensive scientific research on this subject has revealed the nature of
neural alteration that occurs because of the long-term presence of heavy
metals, especially mercury, in the human brain. (1) The elevation of
mercury in the brain interferes and inhibits protein synthesis, and
causes a general reduction in the neural levels of DNA and RNA, which
are the carriers of genetic information, (2) Since mercury binds to a
substance called tubulin, a protein subunit of microtubules that run
between brain cells, the microtubules become clogged[In fact, when
mecury binds with tubulin, it results in neurofibrillary tangles between
neurons instead of clear microtubules. Neurofbrillary tangles are always
seen in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients. Extensive studies have also
been conducted on rats to check this evidence.] , (3) Mercury binds with
the cell membranes of the neurons themselves, interfering with sodium
and potassium enzyme function, causing excess membrane permeability,
especially in terms of the blood-brain barrier[Less than 1ppm mercury
absorbed into the bloodstream can impair the blood-brain barrier. Ref:
Koller,L.D. “Immunotoxicology of heavy metals” International Journal of
Immunopharmacology, Vol 2, p.269, 1980; Koller L.D., “Immunosuppression
produced by lead, cadmium and mercury” American Journal Vet. Res., Vol
34, p1457, 1973.] , which promotes entry of materials into the brain
that would not ordinarily be a problem.

It is for this reason that vaccines contain adjuvant compounds
containing mercury (and aluminum). It is one of the revelations that
supports the concept that the medical industrial complex has known about
this all along and has been intentionally pumping heavy metals into the
population. (4) Mercury interacts with trace elements zinc and selenium,
causing shortages of these important trace elements which subsequently
diminish neural and immune system capabilities. There is no doubt in the
minds of scientists that mercury, acquired mostly from seafood (from
industrial pollution) and mercury amalgam dental implants, plays a
definitive role in neurological deteriorization in Alzheimers syndrome.

Interesting Parallels with the Early German discovery of Mercury Effects
and the Inculcation of the Prussian Educational System in the United

It is interesting that much of the early (1920’s) definitive research
that determined the effect of mercury on the brain was done in Germany,
indicating that mercury implantation might have later been included as
part of the generalized plan to inhibit neurological activity in the
population. It is also interesting to note that the Prussian system of
education inculcated into the United States was designed to reduce the
thought capacity of the general population, while preserving an elite
one percent at the top. Coincidence? I don’t think so. It is also
interesting, in light of this, that Germany has banned the use of
mercury amalgam implants, but the German-based scientific technocracy in
the United States encourages it. They can ban mercury in paint (1991)
but they can’t ban it from the mouth.

Federal Drug Administration Collusion in the Mercury Coverup

One of the interesting statements by the American Dental Association is
that “the Food and Drug Administration in 1987 classified mercury
amalgam as a Class I dental device.” The FDA rules state that all
“dental devices” must be certified as safe and effective. Class I is the
safest. Class II requires general performance standards. Class III
requires special controls to insure a reasonable degree of safety.

The fact of the matter is that the ADA statement is not accurate.
Research indicates that the FDA does not certify mercury amalgam as safe
- only the alloy that the dentists mixes with it. Amazingly, the FDA
certifies liquid mercury itself as a Class I “device”. The U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services states that “the available
research evidence is not specific enough or strong enough to make sound
pronouncements about the human health risks from dental amalgam. The
potential for effects at levels of exposure produced by dental amalgam
restorations has not been adequately studied.” According to FDA
mandates, a device where insufficient information exists must be
classified under Class III. The fact that mercury liquid is classified
as Class I and amalgam itself actually remains unclassified, means that
the manufacturer is not required to furnish proof of safety. Without
scientific proof provided by the manufacturer, complaints about mercury
amalgam end up nowhere.

In 1991, the FDA Dental Products Panel agreed with the HHS determination
that “sufficient scientific data does not exist to allow a conclusion”
as to whether mercury amalgam is a health risk to patients.” A Health
and Human Services report in 1993 refers to the existance of hundreds of
complaints about adverse reaction to mercury amalgam as “anecdotal” and
“bogus.” Conspiratorial criminal negligence? Yes. The only thing to be
gained is the gradual mental degeneration of the population. But, why
would they want to do that?

The Swedish Conclusion

Several determinations made by Sweden in 1986 and the 1990’s have
already been mentioned, but one determination not yet mentioned occurred
in 1987. Sweden’s National Department of Health engaged an expert
committee in 1987 to review the safety aspects of mercury amalgam.
According to the committee, “from the toxicological point of view,
mercury is too toxic for use as a filling material, and dentists should
use other materials as soon as they are available.” It is this
determination which contributed heavily to the Swedish ban on the use of
mercury in dental restorations.

Some Effects of Mercury on Human Physiology

1. Research indicates that mercury will penetrate the blood-brain
barrier around the brain - the thin membrane which acts to separate the
blood from the functional elements of the central nervous system. The
blood-brain barrier, as well as being a physical barrier to undesirable
metabolic materials outside the brain, also has other regulatory
functions which control passage of select biological substances from the
blood to the nervous system. Impairment of the blood-brain barrier can
occur with absorption of less than 1 part per million ( 2. Studies of
biochemical changes in the nervous system resulting from mercury seem to
indicate a selective inhibition of protein and a great reduction of
amino acids being incorporated into brain tissue.

3. All mercury compounds cause the same type of structural damage to the
brain, but to different extents.

4. Methyl mercury released from amalgam produces complex changes in the
metabolic response of the brain, suggesting impairment of metabolic
control. The alterations in brain metabolism occur at doses far below
those producing toxicity in rats.

5. Human autopsy studies have revealed brain damage in persons exposed
to both organic and inorganic mercury compounds.

6. Neurological disturbances from mercury amalgam consist mainly of mild
tremor, failure of muscle coordination and irregular movement, sensory
and visual loss of acuity.

7. The central nervous system appears to be the first to exhibit
functional disturbance. The toxic effects are produced after the body
converts the elemental mercury vapor into murcuric ions.

8.Progressive constriction of the visual fields, often progressing to
blindness, has been reported repeatedly in almost all significant
exposures of humans to mercury.

9. Even at low concentrations, methyl mercury inhibits the synaptic
uptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin.
These substances are effectively prevented from getting into the CNS and
performing their functions. It is interesting to note that Parkinsons
disease results from an impairment of dopamine in the brain. A study in
1981 reviewed six cases of mercury exposure and subsequent development
of Parkinsons disease.

10. The effect on the kidneys from mercury is well documented in
scientific literature. Mercury, therefore, is “nephrotoxic” (toxic to
the kidneys). Pathological biochemical damage was found in the kidneys
of various animals who had been exposed to mercury in concentrations
below those levels presently considered as “safe” by WHO. Another
significant fact is the animals appeared to be outwardly healthy.

11. Chronic exposure to mercury may cause an excess of serum proteins in
the urine which may progress to nephrotic syndrome, a condition
characterized by massive edema, heavy proteinura and peculiar
susceptibility to infections that break into and modify the course of
any pre-existing disease.

12.Mercury fillings can contribute to a higher level of mercury in the

13. Mercury adversely affects the functioning of the heart. In many
cases the vascular response to norepinepherine and potassium chloride is
blocked by the presence of mercury compounds. Mercury also blocks the
entry of calcium ions into the cytoplasm.

14. Exposure to mercury compounds has been found to increase
cardiovascular impairment.

15. Electrocardiograph (ECG) readings are abnormal in cases of organic
mercurial poisoning.

16. A study in 1983 reported that chronic mercury exposure in rats led
to interference with catecholamine (adrenaline, epinephrine, dopamine,
norepinephrine) reactivity levels.

17. Mercury appears to have a pronounced effect on the endocrine system.
Endocrine substances are excreted by various glands in the body, and
these glands control or influence almost all of the body processes. Some
of the endrocrine secretions are hormones (steroids, peptides, and amino
acids). The steroid and peptide hormones have a half-life varying from 5
to 100 minutes and circulate in the blood plasma. Some of the glands
that excrete endocrine sybstances are the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals,
parathyroid, pancreas, gonads, pineal body and the paraganglia. Research
indicates that the pituitary and thyroid glands display an amazing
affinity for the accumulation of mercury. Concentrations of mercury in
the pituitary and thyroid glands were much higher than that found in the
kidney, brain or liver tissues in humans. Evidence seems to indicate a
drastic decrease in the production of thyroid hormones when mercury is
in evidence. Low mercury concentations result in hormonal shifts and
thyroid dysfunction.

18. The thyroid gland will absorb an increasing amount of nuclear
radiation from all sources under the influence of the presence of

19. Animals poisoned with methyl mercury exhibit stress intolerance and
decreased sexual activity. The data indicates impairment of the adrenal
and testicular steroid hormone secretions. The level of mercury in
tissue required to cause the endocrine abnormalities is lower than those
levels associated with overt neurological dysfunction.

20. Methyl mercury is known to diminish sexual activity in birds and
mammals. It also causes subnormal fertility and spermatogenesis (sperm
production) in rats and impaired growth.

21. Mercury can produce contact demititis and Addison’s disease (reduced
function of the adrenal glands. Some of the symptoms are progressive
anemia, low blood pressure, diarrhea and disgestive disturbances.

22. Mercury has distinct effects on the immune system, especially the
white blood cells (leukocytes) referred to as lymphocytes, of which
there are two types, T cells and B cells. T-cells are produced in the
thymus gland and B-cells are thought to be produced in the bone marrow.
High frequencies of chromosomal aberrations have been observed in
lymphocytes exposed to mercury ions. In other words, the presence of
mercury alters the genetic code in the immune system. Other effects of
mercury on white blood cells include chromosomal breakage, alteration of
mitosis (cell reproduction) and death of white blood cells, as well as a
drop in T-cell production.

23. Methyl mercury has an injurious effect on the fetal nervous system
even at levels far below that considered to be toxic in adults. The
concentration of methyl mercury in fetal blood is about 20% higher than
that of the mother. Still births and the incidence of fetal birth
defects exhibit positive correlation with background levels of mercury.

24. Symptoms of congenital disease from methyl mercury include:
intelligence distinclude: intelligence disturbances, primative reflexes,
disturbances in body growth, speech difficulties, limb deformity, and
hyperkinesia (hyperactivity resulting from brain damage). Abnormally
small heads and mental retardation were

25. During the 1971 incident in Iraq where mothers were exposed to
methyl mercury through contaminated food, mothers were studied for a
five year period following the exposure. Defects in babies whose mother
had been exposed to methyl mercury included CNS damage, cerebral palsy,
a greater death rate among babies, delayed mental development, delayed
motor development, small head circumference, exaggeration of reflexes
and delayed speech development.

26. The reaction of adults during the 1971 Iraqi incident included
headache, sleep disturbances, dizziness, irritability, emotional
instability, mania and depression. Mercury binding compounds did not
seem to have an effect in enhancing recovery from depressive states
caused by mercury toxicity.


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